Local name of practice: Fianga Tchang
Country/region/village: Chad/Mayo Kibbi Est / Mont Illi
Context: climate change and community lake conservation
The Fianga Tchangbele fishing zone is located between the villages of Fianga Tchangbele and Krom in the Canton of Mouta in the Mount Illi Department in Chad. Fianga’s population is approximately 40,000. The area is rich in resources (fish resources, fluvio-lacustrine lands, grazing lands which provide several species as feed for the cattle, thriving and varied fauna, etc.) but recent droughts have led to soil degratation and depletion of vegetation cover of forests surrounding the lakes.Wind erosion has also led to silted lakes with degraded banks leading to a decrease in resources and income. Faced with the drying up and siltation of lakes, the population developed a multi-stakeholder lake management agreement (Lake Convention) with the support of partners such as PRODALKA (Decentralized Rural Development Program of Mayo Dallah, Lake Léré and Kabbia), GIZ and the French Fund for the Environment (FFEM). A decision in national assembly made it possible to develop this practice.
Benefits of the technology
This endogenous approach to lake conservation makes it possible to enhance the safeguarding of lacustrine resources and sustainable management of its resources. It contributes to the protection of the ecosystem and biodiversity evident via for example the reappearance of certain species of fish (cleré, Dougui, Djoum, pore Djorgui, quiniuini) better known in the local language under the name of Toupou. The technique is practiced in the Sahelian zone around lakes threatened by the exploitation of lacustrine resources and its implementation requires the existence of lakes that are subject to multi-stakeholder use. The technology has allowed residents to develop capacities, and strategies for governance and planning, in order to increase local income.
The advantages and performances of this technology are related to:
- Improved conditions of existence of fish in the lakes and reinforcement of income of the fishing population
- The protection of lacustrine resources and strong involvement of all actors;
- Improvement of food security issues and the reduction of dependence on fishery resources;
- The improvement of the living conditions of the population, particularly of education and health.
The technology is applied locally in 9 lakes in the Fianga community in Chad. This endogenous technology consists of a system for sustainable management of lakes in the form of a convention, enabled by the population living near lake Fianga, which delimits zones for reproduction of lacustrine resources. Consultations have also led to the establishment of local decision-making bodies (Local Committee of Decision Guidance, ILOD) together with grassroots actors such as fishermen, farmers, pastoralists and local authorities. Buffer zones to protect the lake have been set up. A 60-meter buffer zone, vegetated using suitable woody species reforested by villagers, surrounds the lake area to enhance surveillance and limit attempts by fraudsters. Landmarks are installed to demarcate the protected area. The zone is visualized by posts fixed on the banks of the west and east sides of the lake and the buffer zone by adapted local materials.
The Lake Convention allows for management autonom and acquisition of basic management rules. The purpose of the local convention is to:
- Ensure a participatory and sustainable management of the protected zone
- Promote the reconstitution/ reproduction of fishery resources,
- Regulate the use of fish resources
- Limit the degradation of fish and agropastoral resources by appropriate protection actions.
The local lake convention defines a number of rules and prohibitions for the use of resources. A village monitoring committee has been set up by the village assembly for a renewable two-year term to supervise and carry out the management supervision of the protection zone under the management rules. It is under the responsibility of the village chief who works in close collaboration with the inter-village management committee of the fisheries protection zone, the canton chiefs, the concerned ILODs and the State technical services. Committee members can reach seven people depending on the size of the village. In case of violation of rules for the use of lake resources, the committee appointed during the implementation of the local convention acts in collaboration with the authorities to punish the offenders.
The cost of the technology is estimated at about 9 million CFA francs for 3 months (USD 18,000) which covers:
- Operating costs of the village committees and the inter-village committee;
- Sensitization campaigns on the management of the fishery resources and the rules of management;
- Surveillance actions;
- Development of the full protection zones;
- Costs of delimiting the protection strips around the banks.
According to the rules of management of the convention are considered users, fishermen, agro-pastoralists, straw mowers, transhumants and all the population of the riparian villages. Women are mostly concerned with the activity of fish trade and they are found in village monitoring committees even if they do not occupy the key positions. The practitioners of this technology are varied. The beneficiaries are the Massa people and the benefits accrue to the entire family but mainly married women and young girls. They are not at risk when they use this technology. However, they are often confronted with problems of aggression.
Potential for technology transfer and up-scaling
Technology transfer is possible given the following prerequisites to consider:
- Consultation with local traditional leaders
- Sensitization of local population
- Economic incentives in the form of need for increased income from fish products
- Development of a General Assembly to promote the idea
- Capacity for lake resource area demarcation and financial management
- Establishment of a convention that regulates the exploitation of lacustrine resources, establishment of local guidance and decision-making bodies, and prohibition of stray animals
Barriers towards development of the technology are related to:
- Lack of willingness from parts of the population;
- Lack of technical and financial means;
- Reluctance of the authorities
- Failure to take ownership of the technology by the population
Fianga Tchangbele - Molfoudeye Revised Local reserved Fishery Convention, March 2016- February 2021.
Chad-Germany Cooperation: PRODABO (Decentralized Rural Development Program) Convention locale révisée de la mise en défens halieutique de Fianga Tchangbele - Molfoudeye, mars 2016- Février 2021.
Coopération Tchado-Allemande : PRODABO (Programme de développement rural décentralisé d’Assoungha, Biltine et Ouara)