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Structural barriers are flood protection infrastructure used to control river floodwater flow and protect communities against costly effects of inundation. Structural barriers are typically permanent construction built at a designated point on a waterway’s path to contain water on one side of the barrier. Dams, dikes, locks and levees are common examples of such hard infrastructure. More simple barriers can also be temporarily implemented in some cases. These barriers are an important adaptation technology for the projected increase in frequency of flood events as a result of climate change. Although often expensive to build and maintain, these structures may be necessary in certain cases to protect communities from loss of private property, public infrastructure and economic livelihoods, as well as risks to health and lives.