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Natural wetlands are ecosystems that are either permanently or seasonally saturated in water, creating habitats for aquatic plants and conditions that promote the development of hydric (wetland) soils. There are various types of wetlands, including: marshes, swamps, forested wetlands, bogs, and wet meadows, as well as coastal wetlands such as mangroves. The ability of wetlands to retain large volumes of water, which they release slowly, makes them important for combatting extreme weather conditions such as flood control and drought mitigation, that occur more frequently as a result of climate change. Additionally, wetlands contribute to water purification, water regulation, biodiversity, aesthetics and recreation.
On ground interventions to utilize wetland ecosystem services for climate benefits may include wetland restoration or conservation activities (avoided degradation). Wetland restoration is the reestablishment of a degraded wetland. Degradation often results from drivers such as agricultural activities, land development for property, and others. Restoration interventions should aim to restore the original hydrology and topography of the wetland so that natural processes and ecosystem services delivering water storage and regulation benefits can be maintained.