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Treating water at the point-of-use (such as the household) in places where centralized water treatment systems are not efficient or present can improve water quality and safety. Technological advances have resulted in a number of low-cost and effective point-of-use treatment options.
These include physical filtration (e.g. using cloths, ceramics, sand or specialized filters), chlorination or disinfectant powders (a chlorine solution or disinfectant added to water, killing most bacteria and viruses), solar disinfection (water bottled in clear plastic and placed under direct sunlight – ultraviolet rays and heat kill pathogens in still water) and boiling (heat inactivates dangerous bacteria and viruses).