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Flood forecasting systems help forecast potential flooding events before they occur. They determine the flood risk, and are therefore closely linked to early warning systems, which issue warnings when there is a high risk of flooding. The forecasts increase lead-time for the public to prepare and evacuate, and helps provide an adequate response to minimize flood damage. The lead-time can range from hours up to several days, depending on local hydrological and topographical conditions. The forecasting systems estimate expected water level rise using data inputs from simulation tools and models that predict precipitation levels and stream flow, as well as from hydrometric stations measuring water levels at selected points along a river or other water body. Once a potential flood is forecasted, early warning systems provide the crucial step of communicate the threat. Telecommunication is particularly effective. Due to the increase in number and magnitude of extreme events as a result of climate change, this technology a vital adaptation tool and helps to manage and minimize the catastrophic effects of flooding.