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Scientific monitoring and assessment provide basic characterization of the groundwater resources of an area, an understanding of the different pathways by which saltwater may intrude an aquifer, and a basis for management of water supplies. Water-quality monitoring networks are particularly important in serving as early-warning systems of saltwater movement toward freshwater supply wells, as well as providing information on the rates of saltwater encroachment. Dedicated wells that sample multiple intervals of an aquifer are invaluable for providing a three-dimensional characterization of the extent of saltwater within an aquifer system. (Barlow, P.M., and E.G. Reichard. 2010).

Long-term monitoring of the saltwater-freshwater interface, particularly at sites identified as potentially sensitive to intrusion, will increase the quality and quantity of data used to assess vulnerability to saltwater intrusion.

Scientific modelling is an essential tool in the assessment of coastal aquifer dynamics. Modelling helps identify the different factors (such as recharge) that influence groundwater movement. Models can be further enhanced to incorporate the effect of water density (e.g., salinity) on groundwater flow, and they can be adapted to identify conditions under which groundwater availability is optimized and saltwater intrusion is limited (Barlow and Reichard 2010). Specifically, these optimization models can assist in calculating favourable groundwater yields by identifying the pumping rates, well locations, and human interventions (such as artificial recharge) that are most efficient (Darnault and Godinez 2008; Ferreira da Silva and Haie 2007, cited in Linzei 2011).…

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