In recent years, Vietnam has accumulated an increased amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) due to rapid growth of the population and economy. The country has recognized the waste management sector as one of the key areas for climate change mitigation measures. Conventional waste treatment practices such as open dumping into landfill sites is one of Vietnam’s major GHG emissions sources due to its generation of methane. Its NDC includes a target to “Utilize landfill gas and solid waste combustion for power generation.”
In order to reach its goals, Vietnam seeks to introduce and deploy Waste to Energy (WtE) with a waste incineration process to decrease the volume of waste delivered to landfill sites, and thermal recycling technology to supply energy such as electricity. WtE provides multiple benefits such as GHG emissions reductions, prolonged lifetime of final waste disposal sites, reduced odor and insect problems near landfill sites, and energy security. However, WtE technology has not been deployed widely due to a lack of technology evaluation capacity, expertise and experience. The Vietnam Environmental Administration (VEA) of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) requires technical support in developing the criteria for waste treatment technologies, while local municipalities need evaluation criteria practices.
- Guidance and support in developing technology evaluation criteria to assist the Ministry and other entities on application of criteria to model WtE projects in order to disseminate WtE technology.
- Reduced GHG emissions in the waste sector;
- Contribution to the establishment of a healthy society and economy, increased energy security, with private investment mobilization and public-private partnership; and
- Increased ambition of the country’s NDC through the introduction of advanced modern low-carbon technologies that can become an integral part of successive updated NDCs.