Mongolia is in the arid and semi-arid region; therefore, the amount of precipitation generally is low. The larger part of precipitation falls in the warm season and only below 3% of winter precipitation falls as snow. The spatial distribution of precipitation in Mongolia is very specific due to a vast area, land composition, roughness and geographical peculiarity.
Climate change studies show that a near-surface temperature and its annual mean over Mongolia have increased by 2.24° C between 1940-2016 periods. Climate change impacts on water resources have been visible; surface water resources have been declining over the years as numbers of lakes been dried out.
At the national level, Mongolia has adequate exploitable water resources to meet water demand up to 2030 as per current research. However, there are challenges at certain local levels:
- Potential water shortages in dry months due to limited exploitable surface water resources caused by major seasonal disparities in rainfall patterns, as well as environmental flow requirements of 90-95% of the average surface water flow;
- Low quality and usability of certain surface water resources caused by the discharge of CTCN Technical Assistance Request Submission Form untreated municipal and industrial effluent to water bodies;
- Low quality of ground water in shallow wells and temporary ponds due to washed pollutants and minerals from surface;
- Limited potential for development of surface water resources, such as hydropower and irrigation dams and for water transfers
There have been previously done a couple pilot or project scale activities in addressing ecosystem-based water management but, the approach needs to be further studied and evaluated in alignment with national planning. Overall, due to the complexity of this issue, lack of technical capacities at the national and local levels as well as the relative new concept of climate impact assessments, baseline settings, ecosystem-based approaches, sustainable water resources management has not yet been advanced in its implementation.
Conduct an assessment to enhance climate resilience and adaptation, water security for local populations, and sustainability of the ecosystem services of the highly vulnerable ecosystem and its dependent population in semi-arid area of Buir Lake in Mongolia:
- Improving data and information availability for decision-making relating to Buir Lake baseline;
- Conduct climate change impact and vulnerability analysis;
- Develop a climate change adaptation roadmap for Buir Lake;
- Training and capacity building.
Established the information base and local capacity for decision making in addressing the climate challenges in Buir Lake. This technical assistance will also provide a basis for the development of a draft Concept Note for the Green Climate Fund for upscaling activities in a broader area.