Threats and responses  

•       Current global mean warming of less than 1ºC above pre-industrial levels has already significantly impacted the Earth’s climate system and the majority of the world’s ecosystems and species.  

•       The majority of this warming is caused by fossil fuel-generated CO 2  which is also causing ocean acidification to occur at an unprecedented rate, with profound ramifications for biodiversity and humanity. 

•       Observed species-level impacts include exposure to rapidly shifting climate zones, increased extreme weather events, rising sea levels and changes in the distribution and seasonal activities of a wide range of species. 

•       Conserving and restoring terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems – and their component species – need to be recognised as an essential part of climate change mitigation and adaptation policy.  

•       Urgent mitigation action to stabilise and reduce CO 2  levels is essential if catastrophic biodiversity impacts are to be avoided. 

•     Essential adaptation action needs to include ecosystem protection to ensure as much species resilience as possible and to maintain natural carbon sinks. 

Publication date
Type of publication
Ecosystems and biodiversity
CTCN Keyword Matches
Ecosystems and biodiversity
Ecosystem restoration and conservation plans