National monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems in Nepal have been evolving rapidly in the past decade. There have been new guidelines and approaches developed by the National Planning Commission in order to move the government towards results based management and use of sectoral and national indicators. There are examples of improvements and good practice across the government where targets and sectoral approaches are being used and data management systems from the local to the national level are in operation. However, even systems that have extensive data collection and systems for performance management, such as Education and Health, face challenges in moving from monitoring progress to evaluating performance, and using the data and frameworks to feedback into future planning processes. Within this context, the M&E of climate change adaptation is a new challenge that has emerged very recently and the government, with the support of the development partners, is trying a range of approaches to adaptation and its M&E.