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The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research

Country of registration:
Acronym:
TNO
Relation to CTCN:
Consortium Partner
Knowledge Partner
CTCN Keyword Matches:
Sector(s) of expertise

TNO is an independent research organisation which connects people and knowledge to create innovations that boost the competitive strength of industry and the well-being of society in a sustainable way. This is our mission and it is what drives us, the over 3,400 professionals at TNO, in our work every day. We work in collaboration with partners and focus on nine domains.

Organisation name (local):
Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland
Acronym (local):
TNO
Active in:
Worldwide

Contributions

  • Modal shift in freight transport

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    The modal split for freight transport varies greatly by region, and is largely determined by geographical and economic factors. However there is a common trend towards more use of road transport, at the expense of rail and water transport. The latter modes have a substantially better environmental profile, but are limited by longer delivery times and the necessity of pre- and post-haulage by truck, i.e. inter-modal transport. In the logistic chain used nowadays, there are small local stocks and fast on demand delivery is required.

  • Biomass combustion and co-firing for electricty and heat

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Combustion is the most common way of converting solid biomass fuels to energy. Worldwide, it already provides over 90% of the energy generated from biomass, a significant part of which in the form of traditional uses for cooking and heating. Biomass of different forms can also be used to produce power (and heat) in small-scale distributed generation facilities used for rural electrification, in industrial scale applications, as well as in larger scale electricity generation and district heating plants.

  • Small-scale Combined Heat and power

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Co-generation is the combined production of useful thermal energy and electricity (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) from the same primary fuel. CHP can take on many forms and encompasses a range of technologies, but will always be based upon an efficient, integrated system that combines electricity production and heat recovery. By using the heat output from the electricity production for heating or industrial applications, CHP plants generally convert 75-80% of the fuel source into useful energy, while the most modern CHP plants reach efficiencies of 90% or more (IPCC, 2007).

  • Large-scale Combined Heat and Power

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Co-generation is the combined production of useful thermal energy and electricity (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) from the same primary fuel. CHP can take on many forms and encompass a range of technologies, but will always be based upon an efficient, integrated system that combines electricity production and heat recovery. By using the heat output from the electricity production for heating or industrial applications, CHP plants generally convert 75-80% of the fuel source into useful energy, while the most modern CHP plants reach efficiencies of 90% or more (IPCC, 2007).

  • Fuel cells for mobile applications

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Fuel cells are used to produce electricity. They are considered a promising technology to replace conventional combustion engines in vehicles. Fuel cells may also replace batteries in portable electronic equipment. The most widely used types of fuel cells for mobile devices are Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEM FC) which are often used in vehicles, and Direct Methanol fuel cells, used in portable applications. PEM fuel cells use hydrogen or certain alcohols such as methanol as fuel.

  • Smart grid

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    The smart grid is the state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art technology for electrical system that can sensibly execute the operations to all interconnected elements -­‐ from generator to consumers. Smart grid simply converts the conventional power grid towards the modern grid in order to regulate sustainable, economic and reliable electricity (Massoud &Wollenberg, 2005 and Gellings, 2009). Smart grid intelligently executes operations from primary and secondary generators through the transmission and distribution network to the different types of consumers.

  • Heating- Ventilation and Air Conditioning

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems supply fresh air and condition the indoor air temperature and humidity of a building. HVAC is reported as the key energy user (37%) in US buildings (WBCSD, 2008), accounting for 59% of the energy used in China commercial buildings in 2000 (Levine et al., 2007). Therefore, HVAC is a key component of climate change mitigation potential in the building sector.

  • Efficient air conditioning systems

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Cooling is becoming a rapidly emerging demand in developing countries, which signifies that the building design and shell measures need to reduce cooling loads, and the efficiency of air-conditioning will need to be improved. Air conditioning systems are implemented in numerous sectors, namely buildings, industry and transport. They are distinguished in two main categories, room air conditioners and central air conditioners.

  • Biodiesel

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Liquid biofuels for transport, including biodiesel, have to a certain extent been in use for a very long time. In recent years however, they are enjoying renewed interest in both developed and developing countries as a result of the need to curb rising emissions from the transport sector, reduce dependence on expensive fossil oil imports and increase farm incomes.

  • Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    A plug in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle with the ability to recharge its energy storage with electricity from an off-board power source such as a grid. PHEVs have the potential to displace a significant amount of fuel in the next 10 to 20 years. It is estimated that they can reduce fuel consumption by up to 45% relative to that of a comparable combustion engine vehicle.

  • Liquefied Natural Gas in trucks and cars

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    The use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in transport is a suitable option to power, large long distance trucks in areas where gas is transported as LNG because there are indigenous gas supplies and no gas network. The use of LNG in passenger cars is far less viable because on average passenger cars stand idle more often, which would give rise to high evaporative losses. The use of LNG requires storage facilities for the cold (-162 0C) liquid natural gas at the roadside refueling stations and special fuelling equipment which can handle cryogenic temperatures.

  • Pulverised Coal Combustion with higher efficiency

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Pulverised coal power plants account for about 97% of the world's coal-fired capacity. The conventional types of this technology have an efficiency of around 35%. For a higher efficiency of the technology supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal-fired technologies have been developed. These technologies can combust pulverised coal and produce steam at higher temperatures and under a higher pressure, so that an efficiency level of 45% can be reached (ultra-supercritical plants).

  • Optimising aviation

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Improved air traffic management techniques like to avoid flying holding patterns, “green landings” and the use of relatively low speed airplanes for domestic aviation can reduce the emission of greenhouse gases substantially. Depending on their penetration up to 3% CO2 emission reduction can be achieved for green landings and 10-60% CO2 emission reduction for low speed airplanes. Moreover, these techniques will lower the NOx and soot emissions, thereby improving the air quality around the airport.

  • Energy efficient refrigerators

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Refrigerators are used in households across the world to store food at a temperature of about 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F) in order prevent it from spoiling. This technology description focuses on refrigerators for residential use and on energy efficiency performance only. It does not take into account potential GHG effects caused by the refrigerant.

  • Energy Savings in buildings

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Technologies and measures which are aimed at reducing the use of energy in buildings could have several advantages, such as lower energy bills, increasing comfort of living or working, and reduced impact on the environment, including reduction of CO2 emissions. The options considered for energy savings particularly leading to CO2 emission reductions include the following:

  • Wave energy

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Marine renewables, also known as ocean energy, refers to a broad range of technologies that extract energy from the ocean; this energy can be in the form of ocean waves, tidal movements or thermal gradients. Marine renewables are, in general, at a relatively early stage in their development and, as such, the methods of converting these potential energy sources into useful electrical power are still highly diversified, with many technologies competing for commercial viability.

  • Hybrid electric vehicles

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    One approach to lowering the CO2 emission from traffic is the hybridization of vehicles. A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct power sources, i.e. hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. Vehicles employed in urban areas like small passenger cars, local delivery trucks and city busses benefit from hybridization and show substantially lower CO2 emissions, ranging from 23 to 43% depending on the traffic dynamics.

  • Integrated gasification combined-cycle

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Coal gasification technology, often referred to as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), is the process of gasifying coal to produce electricity. The coal is gasified by burning finely-crushed coal in an environment with less than half the amount of oxygen needed to fully burn the coal. Essentially, the coal is not burned directly but undergoes a reaction with oxygen and steam. This produces what is known as synthetic gas or “syngas.” This gas is then combusted in a combined cycle generator to produce electricity.