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Leak detection and water loss control are important measures to improve efficiency in distribution systems and avoid unnecessary withdrawals. ‘Real’ water losses are defined as the amount of water lost between the supplier and the consumer, while ‘apparent’ losses are defined as those due to inaccurate consumption measurements by the consumer or utility.
Distribution network leakages, storage overflows and poor equipment maintenance can lead to real water losses, while apparent losses result from imprecise metering, data errors and unauthorized consumption by a third party. Implementing leak detection systems, pressure control, maintaining meters, and controlling against unauthorized use, are all measures that can help mitigate real and apparent water losses (also known as non-revenue water).