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Urban drainage and sewer systems are facing increasing pressures due to climate change and rapid urbanization rates. Common risks in these types of environments include sewer overflows due to heavy rainfall, and associated water contamination risks.
Optimizing drainage systems aims to improve those already existing so that drainage overflows are minimized without having to expand the system. Computer simulation models improve real time operations using algorithms to evaluate system performance of, reveal deficiencies, identify high flood-risk areas, and illustrate optimal design improvement interventions such as optimal pump capacities, storage sizes, and locations, green spaces, etc. This helps managers meet desired system requirements to avoid overflows at the lowest possible costs and highest efficiency. Modern urban drainage systems are often co-optimized through linking them to other water management objectives such as improved recycling, groundwater recharge, water purification and recreational zone establishment ( green spaces), therefore offering multiple benefits from a single investment.