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Mining & production

  • Sectors
    Objective

    The iron and steel sector is the second-largest industrial user of energy, consuming 616 Mtoe in 2007 and is also the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions. The five most important producers – China, Japan, the United States, the European Union and Russia – account for over 70% of total world steel production. A standard technique that is applied worldwide is the coke wet quenching of coke, where quenching vapors are bunkered before delivery to the atmosphere and subsequently or immediately a condensate is drawn off and cooled further.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Cement is a global commodity, manufactured at thousands of plants. The industry is consolidating globally, but large international firms account for only 30% of the worldwide market. The principal and most visible market for cement is the construction industry in a multitude of applications where it is combined with water to make concrete. Most modern civil engineering projects, office buildings, apartments and domestic housing projects use concrete, often in association with steel reinforcement systems.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    The iron and steel sector is the second-largest industrial user of energy, consuming 616 Mtoe in 2007 and is also the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions. The five most important producers – China, Japan, the United States, the European Union and Russia – account for over 70% of total world steel production. Coke dry quenching appears as the most valid system to reduce air pollution allowing at the same time a remarkable energy recovery or saving, especially when it is associated with coal preheating.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    The iron and steel sector is the second-largest industrial user of energy, consuming 616 Mtoe in 2007 and is also the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions. The five most important producers – China, Japan, the United States, the European Union and Russia – account for over 70% of total world steel production. A main technology in the iron and steel industry is the direct casting, which is the process of creating finished iron and steel products using moulds to shape the molten metal.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Steel is by far the world’s most important metal, with a global production of 1120 Million Metric ton (MMt) in 2009 (Worldsteel, 2010). In september 2010 the most important steel producers were China (42, 90 %), EU-27 (12, 79 %), Japan (8, 26 %), USA (5, 95 %) and India (5, 05 %) (Worldsteel, 2010). Figure 1 shows the development of world steel production since 1999. Clearly, China has become the dominant steel producer.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    The iron and steel sector is the second-largest industrial user of energy, consuming 616 Mtoe in 2007 and is also the largest industrial source of CO2 emissions. The five most important producers – China, Japan, the United States, the European Union and Russia – account for over 70% of total world steel production. Smelting reduction is a term assigned to a group of upcoming ironmaking processes which aim at overcoming certain fundamental problems of the existing blast furnace route.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    “Final energy consumption in the global aluminum industry in 2007 was estimated to be 93 Mtoe. The industry is highly electricity-intensive. Primary aluminum smelters used just over 50 Mtoe of electricity in 2007, equivalent to about 4% of global electricity consumption. In total, the aluminum industry emits 0.4 Gt CO2-equivalent of greenhouse gases, including process emissions and indirect emissions from electricity production, equivalent to just under 1% of total global greenhouse-gas emissions (IEA, 2010).”