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Land transport

  • Sectors
    Objective

    This article presents readers with the option of retaining three-wheeler taxis – with attention to better technology, maintenance and regulation – on the grounds that they perform a valuable role in the localities where they exist, and if they were removed the vehicles and travel practices that replaced them would produce increased congestion, road injuries and fatalities, air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. On these grounds, localities that do not have three-wheeler taxis might even consider introducing newer, cleaner-technology versions of them.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Public transport (mass transit) is critical to the proper functioning of any city, town or rural area. A range of transit modes offer different capacity opportunities, and therefore the potential for high or low impact on car use. Higher capacity systems cost more to put in, but offer much more potential reduction in total transport costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The social, economic and environmental costs of not having an efficient mass transit system never go away, so it is really a case of stemming these costs earlier or later.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Road pricing is an effective economic instrument to reduce congestion, and to limit the growth in private vehicle travel demand. It has been successfully implemented in cities such as Singapore and London, resulting in substantial improvements in the urban environment and transport system. The largest barrier for ERP is public opposition by car users. However acceptance often increases after implementation. Important success factors are clear communication of the benefits to society and complementary policies regarding public transport and parking.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Proper traffic management can ensure that traffic flows smoothly and efficiently; there is fair access for different transport modes; roads and streets are safe for all users; roads full of motorised traffic do not constitute barriers blocking movement between areas; congestion, local pollution and noise are minimised; neighbourhoods, pedestrian areas and the overall character of localities are protected from the negative impact of high traffic levels; and greenhouse gas is reduced.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Transit-oriented Development (TOD) is a policy process that links land use to transit in order to make the most of the transit system. It is a major policy to reduce car dependence. Transit-oriented developments are the result of this policy; they generally have higher densities for residential and commercial activity, provide very pedestrian friendly environments and are closely connected to a quality public transport station. Parking is less available and is managed to reduce its negative impacts, and walking, cycling and transit use are encouraged.

  • Sectors
    Objective

    Non-motorised transport (NMT) is often a key element of successfully encouraging clean urban transport. It can be a very attractive mode of transport for relatively short distances, which make up the largest share of trips in cities. The key to reversing the trend towards more private vehicle use is making walking and cycling attractive, together with improving public transport. This can be done by a range of activities including construction of sidewalks and bike lanes, bike sharing programmes, urban planning and pedestrian-oriented development.