Filter by objective

Filter by sectors

The built environment

  • Objective

    Thermal insulation is an important technology to reduce energy consumption in buildings by preventing heat gain/loss through the building envelope. Thermal insulation is a construction material with low thermal conductivity, often less than 0.1W/mK. These materials have no other purpose than to save energy and protect and provide comfort to occupants. Of the many forms, shapes and applications of thermal insulation, this section focuses on those that are commonly used for building envelopes– i.e., floor, walls and roof, and have potential for South-South technology transfer.

  • Objective

    Materials and products used in building, such as steel and aluminum, are created by a production process of raw material extraction, raw material process, melting, manufacture to final products, and transportation to building sites. Each of the steps consumes energy, which is also expressed in terms of carbon emissions. Total carbon emissions of all building materials and products and the construction involved to put them together is known as building’s embodied carbon. Embodied carbon accounts for about 20% of the carbon emissions from the building sector (Lane, 2010).

  • Objective

    Managing the energy and other needs in buildings efficiently and intelligently can have considerable benefits. A building energy management system (BEMS) is a sophisticated method to monitor and control the building's energy needs. Next to energy management, the system can control and monitor a large variety of other aspects of the building regardless of whether it is residential or commercial. Examples of these functions are heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting or security measures.

  • Objective

    Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems supply fresh air and condition the indoor air temperature and humidity of a building. HVAC is reported as the key energy user (37%) in US buildings (WBCSD, 2008), accounting for 59% of the energy used in China commercial buildings in 2000 (Levine et al., 2007). Therefore, HVAC is a key component of climate change mitigation potential in the building sector.

  • Objective

    The life cycle and integrated design process can be understood as a design process to deliver a building, in which its relationship to the surrounding context, technical components and technologies are parts of a whole system, for the whole building life cycle (Larsson, 2005). This objective can be obtained once interdisciplinary professional team members work collaboratively right from the inception and conceptual design to make strategic decisions and address all design issues.

  • Objective

    Cool roofs can help reduce the heat island effect and also help improving the energy performance of the buildings. A cool roof can reflect the sun’s heat and emits absorbed radiation back into the atmosphere at a higher rate than standard materials. The cool roofs technology has been used for more than 20 years (EPA, 2012). The cool roof basically helps in reflecting sunlight and heat, thus reducing the temperature of the roofs. 20-­‐25% of the urban surface is reported to be occupied by roof surface.

  • Objective

    Daylight harnessing technologies are applied to bring diffused daylight into the building interior. There are many available methods and technologies available to harness daylight and this section covers three selective technologies, which are commonly found in good practice and yet highly applicable in developing countries. They are light shelves, light pipes and skylights. They can be deployed independently or in combination, depending on the building’s configuration and functions.

  • Objective

    Greening the built environment is one of the most feasible and cost effective mitigation options for building sectors in rural and low density urban areas. Simple techniques, such as providing a garden and a pond, can be found in traditional houses in many countries. Taking a traditional house setting in Vietnam for example, plants in the garden provide vegetables and fruit, absorb carbon dioxide, offer shade and cool the ambient temperature.

  • Objective

    The building façade is the interface between the external and internal environments of a building. Therefore, it has a large impact on occupants’ interface with the surrounding environment; energy efficiency and the indoor environmental quality performance of a building, such as lighting and HVAC electricity loads; and peak load to maintain good lighting level and thermal comfort for the occupants.