Water is fundamental to the well being of women and men both in the household and productive activities and is key to poverty reduction and development. Water is also a strategic resource in that its control is a source of power. Interventions that change the control, use of and access to water resources inevitably raise gender issues and opportunities. This report provides key considerations and recommendations in this area drawing on lessons learnt from case studies in Indonesia, Bangladesh, India and Sudan. The recommendations underline the importance of gathering information to show women's and men's roles in water use, collection and protection; and ensuring community participation is based on democratic principles and operates under conditions whereby all stakeholders within communities are ensured equal rights, access to information and an adequate share in decision-making processes. A checklist of questions is provided along with a list of Dos and Don'ts for projects related to water and rural livelihoods, fisheries and aquaculture and irrigation. In addition, examples of gender sensitive Terms of Reference (TOR) on water for production and fisheries projects are given. The paper concludes with a bibliography.