This study seeks to understand how best to connect local and international institutions based on lessons learnt from existing initiatives in the forest sector that aim to achieve greenhouse gas emission reductions (often referred to as ‘forest-carbon’ initiatives) in order to inform the current debates and actions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries). REDD+ can be interpreted as an example of a global payment for ecosystem services (PES). There are many PES initiatives involving carbon stocks in forests around the world, operating at different scales and with various scopes. This report analyses some of these initiatives to highlight the key factors enabling the effective matching of local institutions with global institutions to achieve global environmental objectives (e.g., GHG reductions) in the context of local development priorities (e.g., income generation, increased participation in resource management, fairness in access of resources, secure land tenure) and inherent trade-offs at local level.

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Forest management techniques for mitigation
Greenhouse crop management