This policy brief concentrates on a key institutional barrier: the deficit of regulatory frameworks for capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide. It is targeted at policymakers engaged in the planning, deployment, and risk oversight of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration (CCS). The brief first describes the lifecycle of CCS, identifies stakeholders, and outlines potential risks. It then considers the larger context for CCS regulation, as risks are not the only drivers for governance. Finally, it examines the status of CCS regulation and discusses a path toward comprehensive CCS governance. This path would adapt current regulation to get urgently needed, early commercial-scale projects up and running, and then build on the knowledge base they generate to create comprehensive risk-based CCS governance suitable to wide-scale commercial CCS deployment.