It is crucial for international and national aspects of any forest conservation regime, programme and project to fully involve women, indigenous peoples and small farmers. This publication looks at the strategies of non-governmental and indigenous peoples’ organisations to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Colombia, Costa Rica, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Panama and Uganda. It also outlines the likely impacts of REDD on these countries. The document also contains links to reports by NGOs in Nepal, Paraguay and Brazil. The authors warn that REDD should not proceed without an intergovernmental agreement explicitly promoting human rights-based objectives, and that tailored processes are needed to ensure successful national implementation. The report recommends that REDD should be consistent with: UNFCCC Article 4.1(d), which promotes sustainable management and conservation and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs for GHGs; the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP); and other relevant human rights instruments. It also calls for governments to take a number of measures to secure the greater involvement of small farmers, indigenous peoples and women in forest conservation. These include mainstreaming gender dimensions into all REDD strategy discussions and projects, and providing space for the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples’ organisations, forest-dependent communities and women in all REDD processes.