This position brief describes how policymakers worldwide are looking for ways to address the challenge of controlling real-world emissions brought to forefront by the Volkswagen case. It proposes a rapid and comprehensive policy response not only to deal with defeat devices but also to identify vehicle models with high real-world emissions relative to their test-cycle performance and to improve current compliance and enforcement programs. The brief stresses the value of strong compliance programs in creating a level playing field for industry and earning consumer trust.

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