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Policies Matter: Creating a Foundation for an Energy-Efficient Utility of the Future

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Maggie Molina, Marty Kushler
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This white paper updates the authors' previous (2011) paper and draws together their findings regarding several regulatory tools that many U.S. states have used to encourage utility energy efficiency efforts. These include utility performance incentives, decoupling, lost revenue adjustment mechanisms (LRAM), energy efficiency targets for utilities (energy efficiency resource standards or EERS) and integrated resource planning (IRP).