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Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

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Author:
Erik Ela, Michael Milligan, Brendan Kirby
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This report provides a comprehensive review of current strategies, studies and fundamental research on the impact that increased penetration of variable renewable generation has on power system operating reserves. This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It categorizes the types of operating reserves and links similar reserve definitions in regions that have different naming conventions. The report includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.