Since the United Nations Kyoto Protocol was agreed in 1997 and set legally-binding targets for signatories to limit or reduce greenhouse gas emissions; forest cultivation has been promoted as an important means to reduce carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. There has, however, been limited success. This article argues that this is due in part to gender inequalities which underpin the sustainable development and climate-change policy agendas, having been largely driven by the 'masculine' interests in forestry, accounting, agriculture and policy making. This theory is explored through examination of the different outcomes of a climate mitigation project in Bolivia, for men and women. It found that the project in part met women's immediate practical needs, by supplying a temporary doctor, but did not address longer term interests, like empowerment, through neglecting to tackle issues such as the gendered division of labour. Furthermore, it makes links between global decision-making processes and local impacts.