This study provides a mapping of Norwegian CSOs working on energy and development issues in developing countries and an overview assessment of how the CSOs fit with the priorities of the Norwegian Government’s Clean Energy for Development Initiative. The study has been commisioned by Norad, the Norwegian agency for development aid. It surveys 10 Norwegian CSOs, five of which are primarily environmentally oriented (Bellona, FIVAS, Naturvernforbundet, WWF-Norway and Zero) and five of which are primarily socially oriented (ARC-Aid, Kirkens Nødhjelp, Misjonsalliansen, Norges Vel and Utviklingsfondet). The study is based on a desk-top review of available material from the CSOs as well as semi-structured interviews. The goal of the Clean Energy for Development Initiative is to increase access to clean energy at an affordable price based on the long-term management of natural resources and efficient energy use. Activities shall also contribute to sustainable economic and social development in selected partner countries and to international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.This study supports the view that Norwegian CSOs can especially contribute with regards to developing clean energy solutions at a local level. Most of the CSOs engaged in clean energy for development activities are engaged in this kind of work and Norwegian CSOs generally represent milieus with high and quite specialized levels of competence for this purpose covering all the most relevant technologies (bio-energy, micro and pico hydropower, solar, clean cook-stoves, energy effiency). This represents a valuable resource for up-scaling clean energy activities in developing countries. This fits well with the note in Norad’s Clean Energy Initiative Action Plan 2009-12, that “their [NGO’s] expert knowledge and experience will be utilized in the continued work with the Clean Energy Programme”.