This report examines a set of six selected utilities that provide relatively large-scale customer energy efficiency programs in U.S. states with decoupling, shareholder incentives, or both in place. The report focuses on (1) financial and program impacts and (2) organizational and managerial impacts. Through interviews and analysis of program data, the authors found that supportive regulatory frameworks have been critical in elevating the role of energy efficiency within utility business models. Through an analysis of utility financial data, they found no evidence that energy efficiency programs have had negative effects on shareholder value.

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