Section 1 of this publication introduces the two main international forest initiatives, FLEGT and REDD+. Section 2 describes interactions between various initiatives in a general way. Section 3 deals with governance, law and institutions. It includes articles on safeguards, land tenure and civil society participation, among other topics. Section 4 describes the existing and potential implications of international forest initiatives for communities and smallholders, and section 5 provides two perspectives on the potential linkages between Timber Legality Assurance System (TLAS) and Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV). The publication also includes an article on risk reduction measures for REDD+ investments in which FLEGT could play a role. section 6 discusses several other types of interactions: the potential value of the FLEGT approach for other commodities, experiences with forest funds that may be useful for new REDD+ initiatives and the importance of fuelwood in both REDD+ and FLEGT discussions.