The purpose of the research underlying this report is to provide a global technology outlook for advanced biofuels from2015 to 2045, specifically for liquid transport fuels for road, shipping and aviation use. The report concentrates on the role of innovation in stimulating advanced biofuels pathways that have not reached widespread commercialization. It is aimed at a wide range of stakeholders, including policymakers, investors and project and technology developers worldwide. It aims to provide insight into potential technology and commercialization developments and challenges, and the role that different stakeholders can play in accelerating advanced biofuels pathway development and deployment. The review of the prospects for advanced biofuels includes (1) an overview of advanced biofuels, (2) technical and non-technical barriers to commercial deployment, (3) a comparative assessment of advanced biofuel pathways, (4) a summary of the prospects for advanced biofuels production in the next three decades and (5) strategies to support advanced biofuels at all stages of the innovation chain.