This chapter reviews literature addressing the potential impacts of climate change on the energy, industry and transportation sectors and the associated capacity for adaptation. The chapter begins by considering broad issues relating to impacts and adaptation in the three sectors. It moves on to a more precise definition of the sectors, identifying their economic importance and the more important climate sensitivities. There follows a general overview of the different types of studies that have been conducted and the range of methodologies that have been used. The largest part of the chapter is devoted to a detailed review of this literature. For this purpose, activity is classified according to three types of climate sensitivity: activities with markets that are sensitive to climate, activities and processes that may be directly affected by climate change and activities that are dependent on climate-sensitive resources.