This paper presents an empirical analysis of the impact of climate change on food production in a typical low-income developing country. It provides an estimation of the determinants of adaptation to climate change and the possible implications that these strategies may have on farm productivity. The report presents an analysis of primary data from 1,000 farms producing cereal crops in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. The report finds that climate change adaptation has significant impacts on farm productivity. The decision to employ adaptation measures is assumed to be a function of household characteristics (i.e., gender, age, marital status, literacy, and household size). Informal institutional support (for example: farmer-to-farmer extension, access to credit), climatic factors, temperature level, information about future climatic conditions), and the farm household’s agro-ecological setting also have a very significant impact on farm productivity.The paper concludes informal and formal institutional support strongly affects the adoption of yield-enhancing adaptation strategies in the study sites. The results underline the need to provide appropriate and timely information on future climate changes to farmers to alert them to take appropriate averting actions.