Internal armed conflicts have devastating effects on the civilian population, in particular on women. This paper is a study conducted by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on the needs of women in war, the protection given to women by international humanitarian law and the activities of the ICRC on behalf of women. The study explores the impact conflict has on women and men, looking at such as issues as displacement, security, sexual violence, access to medical care and food, detention and 'disappearances'. Having a better understanding of the specific impact of conflict on women and men and recognising that women have their own needs and vulnerabilities will contribute to developing ways to prevent and alleviate the sufferings of women at war. Full implementation and respect of international humanitarian law is also recommended.