The Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) has prepared a gender profile, Country Gender Analysis, for each country where they have a programme of co-operation. Each report is an overview of the situation of women in a certain country and analyses economic, political and socio-cultural aspects as well as policies and activities of civil society actors, the government and other donors. The objective is to assist in integrating gender in their programmes and policies and to identify and support local initiatives. This particular Country Gender Analysis focuses on Vietnam. Thanks to the achievements of socialism, in Vietnamese society women are relatively emancipated, but traditional attitudes to women are still prevalent and are reinforced by the conservative family life. This effect however is countered by an increasing access to media and information and growing incomes. This paper provides a general overview of the political and economic situation of the country and analyses gender issues in the health and education sectors, and in family planning. It also looks at gender roles in society, and at the barriers encountered by women, for instance in political participation.