How have gender issues been treated in USAID natural resources / environmental projects in Africa' What kind of questions need to be asked, or steps taken, to incorporate gender concerns into the design of projects' Drawing on the literature relating to gender and natural resources management, this report examines the treatment of and information about gender issues within 11 USAID natural resources / environmental projects. Aimed at project and programme implementors, it presents a number of types of gender analysis questions and investigates the degree to which these were explored as part of a social or gender analysis within the projects. Common problems relating to gender and the environment are identified, and projects examined to determine whether these are specific to individual countries and projects. Projects are also scrutinised for implicit and explicit strategies used to address gender issues. The final section presents additional hypotheses that might be used for further research and monitoring purposes.