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Grid Integration and the Carrying Capacity of the U.S. Grid to Incorporate Variable Renewable Energy

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Jaquelin Cochran, Paul Denholm, Bethany Speer, Mackay Miller
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This white paper summarizes the challenges to integrating increasing amounts of variable renewable energy, identifies emerging practices in power system planning and operation that can facilitate grid integration and proposes a unifying concept—economic carrying capacity—that can provide a framework for evaluating actions to accommodate higher penetrations of renewable energy.