In this paper, the authors address the challenge of Germany's energy transition (Energiewende) as the centrepiece of the country's green industrial policy. In addition to creating a sustainable foundation for Germany's energy supply and contributing to global climate change objectives, the Energiewende is intended to create a leading position for German industry in renewable energy technologies, boost innovative capabilities and create employment opportunities in future growth markets. The authors aim to provide an up-to-date and balanced assessment of costs and benefits of renewable energy support measures. However, because costs and benefits can differ widely between targeted technologies, the authors compare solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy to illustrate critical elements of green industrial policy success.

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Energy efficiency
Renewable energy