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Fossil fuel subsidies in Indonesia: trends, impacts, and reforms

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S. Jha
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The study measures actual subsidies such as direct transfers, tax exemptions, subsidized credit, and losses of state enterprises by different fuel types.

This information is intended to help countries better sequence and prioritize reforms. The study contributes to the international and national effort to develop knowledge to ensure reforms are well-planned, sustainable, and politically acceptable.

The researchers hope the findings of this study will promote further discussion and sharing of knowledge on the best ways to anticipate the impacts of fossil fuel subsidy reform. This could help ensure that subsidies are not simply removed, but that the funds they release are put to best use in helping the poor cope with change.