This report describes how countries are increasingly turning to the use of fiscal instruments to support low-carbon development and efforts to reduce emissions, as is evidenced by the proliferation of the references to these instruments within the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted and examined in advance of COP21. The authors detect the frequency of the use of these tools and identifies trends for how countries are planning to use fiscal instruments to support the implementation of INDCs.

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Energy efficiency
Renewable energy