For more than two years preceding the publication of this book, through the contributions of researchers from Latin America, and the financial support of the International Development Research Center (IDRC), the The World Conservation Union researched and collected very diverse case studies that highlight how gender is an essential consideration in natural resource conservation and sustainability initiatives. These show the importance of recognising the different needs, interests and aspirations of each gender in this context; and that women play fundamental roles in the use, management and conservation of biodiversity. This book makes the case for valuing these important roles women play, in order to promote their effective participation from local to international levels of decision-making. It also calls for mainstreaming gender equity into resource conservation and sustainable use interventions. The reasons for this are improved environmental preservation as well as positive impacts to people’s quality of life, particularly helping to overcome poverty. The 30 case studies featured in this publication indicate that progress has been made in linking the topics of environmental preservation and gender, however continued and new challenges are identified. Among these are recognising connections between national and international regulatory frameworks. The real life stories depicted here take place in Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Peru, and two international experiences.