Women contribute substantially to peace-building efforts but are often excluded from negotiations and the decision-making process. With a resolution, the European Parliament calls upon the Commission and Member States to ratify the conventions that condemn any act of violence against women during conflict; to introduce a gender-sensitive approach to peace and security related initiatives and to the planning of refugee camps. It also to facilitate the organisation of counselling for victims of rape and assault; develop training programmes for civil servants, police officers and health staff in reception centres; and to generally make their asylum and immigration policies gender sensitive. An overview of international efforts and of community-based participation in armed conflict prevention and resolution is given. It is follows by a report that substantiates the issues tackled in the resolution with some historical, statistical and conceptual background.