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Equilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Theories of Sustainable Water Resources Management: Dynamic River Basin and Irrigation Behaviour in Tanzania

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This article presents a framework of sustainable water resource utilization underpinned by non-equilibrium thinking and illuminates some conceptual concerns regarding normative management solutions to water scarcity in Africa. Alternative solutions are underpinned by managing water within, and facilitating transitions between, three water supply states: critical water, medial water and bulk water. The discussion is informed by a case study from southwest Tanzania.