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Energy Supplier Obligations and White Certificate Schemes: Comparative Analysis of Results in the European Union

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Silvia Rezessy, Paolo Bertoldi
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This paper examines the ways different European Union (EU) member states, including the United Kingdom, Italy, France, Denmark and Belgium, have implemented energy supplier obligations and white certificate programs and how different designs have impacted the results. In the EU, energy supplier obligations and white certificates have often delivered larger than expected energy savings and costs below what was originally estimated.