Mozambique is endowed with a considerable hydropower potential and is rich in modern energy resources. However, more than 80% of the country’s population is not connected to the national grid. The main objective of this study is to explore 3 energy security dynamics affecting Mozambique: the key drivers of energy availability, accessibility and efficiency for the electricity subsector.
The author underlines inadequate basic infrastructure, the lack of investment, and the lack of a market network as critical reasons for the current situation in energy sector. In addition, difficulties arise from the fact that most hydro plants were destroyed during the civil war.
The main findings of the paper are as follows: 

there is an urgent need to rehabilitate hydro plants and also identify new potential in order to foster the tea industry; the tea-producing areas have plenty of hydro resources
in this respect, the strong involvement of the public sector, enforcement of the regulatory regime, the participation of the private sector, and the strong mobilisation of civil society would play the crucial role
the private sector particularly can operate its own generating system, provide electricity to surrounding communities and selling its energy surplus to the state power utility
renewable energy support should not be targeted exclusively at off-grid initiatives and poverty alleviation
rather, it should be encouraged in economically active sectors, including tourism, telecommunications and commercial enterprises, as well as among middle-class households

The study concludes that there are good opportunities for power exports from Mozambique. Yet, the country’s resources must be utilised in a sustainable manner in order to benefit the different stakeholders, including communities living in rural areas.

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