From a sample of 192 national energy frameworks from 137 countries, nearly one-third of the frameworks include gender considerations to some extent. Of those that include gender keywords, context analysis reveals that women are characterized as potential stakeholders or beneficiaries, but seldom as agents of change.
• Of the frameworks that include gender considerations, cross-cutting gender issues related to time poverty, lack of electrification in rural areas, women’s health and well-being and underrepresentation in employment and decision making across the energy sector are the most prominently found themes.
• Of the frameworks that include gender considerations, 57 frameworks (93%) come from developing countries, particularly from sub-Saharan Africa (32 frameworks, or 56%).
• Energy frameworks from developing countries tend to reflect more diverse opportunities to advance a gender-responsive approach, including by addressing time poverty, energy poverty in rural and urban areas and women’s health and well-being.
• Energy frameworks from developed countries, which are generally less likely to include gender considerations, tend to put forward a gender-responsive approach through designing opportunities for women in energy technology and innovation. All gender keyword mentions in OECD countries’ frameworks fell under this theme.
• Fourteen energy frameworks identify women’s ministries and organizations (or equivalents) as implementing partners, tasked with specific activities or actions.
• This analysis includes 33 renewable energy frameworks. Although half of the renewable energy frameworks are from OECD countries, only one renewable energy document from an OECD country includes gender keywords.