The authors of this preliminary study explore two key types of non-road mobile sources in India: agricultural tractors and construction equipment. Agricultural tractors are widely used in rural areas, and they often operate beyond their designated tasks, serving as alternative transportation for passengers and goods. Most construction equipment is used in or near India's urban centers, where population density is high and air quality is typically poor. Both agricultural tractors and construction equipment use limited emission control technology. As a result, emissions from their diesel engines are expected to be significant, and will potentially have strong negative impacts on local air quality and health in India. The authors intend to shed light on non-road emissions in India.