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Effects of Population Growth and Climate Variability on Sustainable Groundwater in Mali, West Africa

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According to this study, by 2040 population growth, climate variability, and development of urbanization, agriculture, and industry create scenarios in which groundwater extraction is an increasingly larger percentage of the groundwater system. Consumption from agriculture and industry increases extraction rates from less than 1% to 3.8% of mean annual precipitation, which will likely affect the groundwater system. For instance, concentrated pumping in local areas may result in water level declines. The results of this study contribute to an ongoing evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources in West Africa.