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Current and Future Priorities for Mass and Material in Silicon PV Module Recycling

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A full description of the state-of-the-art photovoltaic (PV) recycling methods and their rationale is presented, which discusses the quality of the recycled materials and the fate of the substances that end up in the landfill. The aim is to flag the PV module components currently not recycled, which may have a priority in terms of their embedded energy, chemical nature or scarcity, for the next evolution of recycling. The sustainability of different recycling options, emerging in the literature on electronic waste recycling, and the possible improvement of the environmental footprint of silicon PV modules, will be discussed.