How can gender considerations be taken into account in the development of biotechnology policy in the global South? Many claim that biotechnology (e.g. genetically modified crops) has great potential for improving the health and food security of the world's poor, of which women account for 70 per cent. Critics argue, however, that some forms of technology may in fact harm human health, the environment, biodiversity and traditional farming practices. This paper surveys existing research on the varying impact of biotechnology in the areas of agriculture, health, traditional/indigenous knowledge and biodiversity on women and men in developing countries.