This guide argues that forests are central to sustaining life on our planet. It is estimated that between 500 million and 1 billion smallholds manage agroforestry-based systems or rely on remnant forests to meet subsistence needs. The guide is aimed at those communities as well as civil society organisations, NGOs, people’s organisations and co-operatives which directly support, represent or work with them. It describes key features, scientific underpinnings, practical aspects and lessons from the field of forest carbon projects. It is broken into five chapters, each addressing a different aspect of carbon forestry projects.