Household poverty and household food insecurity in Zambia has increased significantly since 1980, particularly among rural and female headed-households. This is largely a result of the economic deterioration suffered in the country. The structural adjustment programme (SAP) introduced in 1992 to address the situation has also actually adversely affected certain segments of society, particularly at the micro-level. Although there is considerable heterogeneity in the position of Zambian women, case studies reveal that the overall situation of women in Zambia is more vulnerable than that of men and they are more adversely affected by SAPs. Studies of intra-household dynamics in rural and urban households demonstrates that male dominance in the control of household assets prevails. However, a lack of gender disaggregated data hampers an effective gendered analysis of the situation of women and men in Zambia.