This paper describes U.S. regulatory work on the second phase of heavy-duty vehicle greenhouse gas emissions and fuel-efficiency standards by evaluating the payback periods of various advanced efficiency technologies in 2020 and beyond. The evaluation synthesizes the best-available data on efficiency technology costs and analyzes fuel savings under various fuel price and discount rate assumptions. The key findings describe the payback periods for available efficiency technology and emerging long-term technology as well as first-user fuel savings.

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